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Meteorology is a branch of science in which we study about the atmospheric sciences and weather forecasting.

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Meteorology is a branch of science in which we study about the atmospheric sciences and weather forecasting. It describes different variables of the earth like mass flow, air pressure, temperature, water vapor and also how these variables interact with each other over time.

Meteorological data helps forecasters to predict the air quality, air pollution and to know the source of these pollutants.


A person who studies meteorology and is trained in weather and atmospheric sciences is known as a meteorologist. Meteorologists are mainly known for weather forecasting. Professional meteorologists are best known as television and radio weather forecasters whereas other meteorologists who don’t have formal training are known as weatherman and weather specialist.

To know the changes in weather meteorologist use different tools. This tool helps forecasters to collect the basic information about humidity, temperature, air, pressure and other factors which affect the atmosphere. Bolometer, thermometer, anemometer, weather satellites and computer models are some tools used by meteorologists to predict the weather. They also use complex mathematical equations to know the weather. This is known as numerical forecasting.


The meteorological classification is based on the temperature in different parts of the earth’s surface.

• Troposphere- It is the layer present immediately above the earth’s surface enveloping the earth.

• Tropopause- This is the layer which is present in between the troposphere and the stratosphere. This layer is not thick.

• Stratosphere- This layer is present exactly above the tropopause layer and covers a distance of about 30 miles.

• Stratopause- The layer which comes exactly after the stratosphere layer.

• Mesosphere— This is the layer present directly above the stratopause. This layer covers a distance of 20 miles and is a thick layer.


• Wind speed and direction- Anemometer is the instrument which is used to measure the speed of wind.

• Temperature- Sunlight and temperature are two factors responsible for the chemical reactions that take place in the atmosphere. These chemical reactions form photochemical smog from the pollutants present in the air.

• Rainfall- Rainfall has a positive effect as it washes off the dust particles out of the atmosphere and improves the visibility. Higher the frequency of rainfall better will be the air quality.

• Solar radiation- Solar radiation is another important factor affecting the atmosphere. Pyranometer is the instrument which is used to measure the solar radiation.