Science Articles

Types of Motion

If you look around at moving objects, you will notice that they are performing different kinds of motion. For example, a car moves straight along the road, an electric fan rotates, and the pendulum of a clock moves sideways in either direction. These are all different types of motion, exhibited by varying objects.

If you look around at moving objects, you will notice that they are performing different kinds of motion. For example, a car moves straight along the road, an electric fan rotates, and the pendulum of a clock moves sideways in either direction. These are all different types of motion, exhibited by varying objects.

The different kinds of motion an object can have are as follows-

  1. Translatory motion:

The motion in which all the particles of a body move through the same distance in the same time is called translatory motion.

The examples of translatory motion are – a car moving along a road, a ball rolling on the ground, pulling out a drawer, firing of a bullet from a gun, a stone hurled from a catapult etc.

Translatory motion is of two kinds:

  • Rectilinear Motion: When a body moves along a straight line, the motion described by the body is rectilinear motion. Examples of rectilinear motion are – A train moving on a straight rail track, freely falling stone, a coin moving over a carom board etc.
  • Curvilinear Motion: When a body moves along a curved line, the motion described by the body is called curvilinear motion. Examples of Curvilinear motion are – A ball thrown upward at an angle, a car or train moving along a curved road or track.
  1. Circulatory motion:

A motion in which a body moves about a fixed axis without changing its position is called the circulatory motion.

Examples of circulatory motion are – a spinning wheel, a potter’s wheel, a spinning top, a ceiling fan, earth moving around the sun etc.

  1. Oscillatory motion:

The ‘to and fro’ or “back and forth” motion described by an object as a whole, along the same path, without any change in the shape of the object is called oscillatory motion.

Examples of Oscillatory motion are – Children on a swing, Pendulum of a clock moving to and fro, needle of a sewing machine moving up and down, piston of a car, spray pump etc.

  1. Vibratory motion:

The vibratory motion is a kind of oscillatory motion in which the moving object undergoes change in shape or size.

Examples of vibratory motion – All musical instruments such as guitar, violin, sitar, drums, produce vibratory motion.

  1. Periodic motion:

A repetitive motion, which repeats itself after a fixed interval (or regular interval) of time is called the periodic motion.

Examples of periodic motion are – The piston of motor car engine running at a constant speed, swinging pendulum of a wall clock, needle of sewing machine running at a constant speed, motion of a swing, the movement of lungs during breathing etc.

  1. Non- periodic motion:

A repetitive motion, which repeats itself, but not at fixed intervals of time, is called non- periodic motion.

Examples of non-periodic motion are – When brakes are applied to a moving vehicle, the motion described by wheels is non – periodic, a cricket ball rolling down the ground gradually slows down and finally stops and hence, is performing non periodic motion, a cricket ball rolling down the ground gradually slows down and finally stops, etc.

  1. Random Motion:

An object which suddenly changes its motion from one kind to another kind is said to have a random motion.

Examples of random motion are – a flying mosquito, motion of football or hockey player on the ground, a flying kite etc.

  1. Uniform motion:

When a body covers equal distances in equal intervals of time along the same straight line, the body is said perform uniform motion.

Examples of uniform motion are – a flying aero plane, a train moving at constant speed etc.