In a simple manner, biodiversity or biological diversity is used to define the variety of living beings on Earth. It is basically the degree of variation of life. Biodiversity contains all micro-organisms, plants, animals and even the ecosystems like forests, deserts, coral reefs etc.
Biodiversity is also the number or abundance of different species that live within a particular region. It is all about the natural area sustenance which is made up of the plants, animals and all other living beings. All the human cultures have their toots deeply embedded in our biological diversity in some or the other way.
Biodiversity also lays down the foundation for the vast array of ecosystem services that are critically important for their contribution to the well being of the humans. Biodiversity lays down the foundation for the ecosystem services to which the well being of the humans is linked.
Biodiversity has three main important elements-
- Genetic diversity
- Eco system diversity
- Species diversity
IMPORTANCE OF MAINTAINING THE BIODIVERSITY
- Biodiversity helps in maintaining the balance of ecosystem on the Earth.
- It also helps in providing the biological resources like provision of medicine, food for the animals and human population, wood products, diversity of species, ecosystems, genes and etc.
- Biodiversity enriches the Earth for recreation and tourism along with being a major source for educational research and cultural value.
- Biodiversity plays a very important role in the discovery of drugs and medicines. It is a proven fact that the medicines from nature account for 80% usage in the world’s population.
- Biological resources provide various industrial materials like fiber, rubber, oil, water, paper, wood etc.
- The rich biodiversity becomes a sit for tourist attractions and enhances the recreational activities like fishing, trekking, bird watching and etc. It also becomes a muse for the artists and the musicians.
- If we as humans have a right to exist, then same goes with other species. We cannot voluntarily cause their extinction for our own purposes.
REASONS FOR THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
In today’s scenario, the biodiversity is endangered owing to the destruction caused by humans. Many species have become threatened and extinct, majorly due to the “hunting” by humans. Still, some of the other factors for the destruction of biodiversity are habitat destruction of the species (by humans for the purpose of building new places), climatic change, and invasive species, and pollution, overpopulation of humans and over doing of harvesting.