Science Articles

WHAT IS DARK MATTER?

Dark matter is a hypothetical type of matter distinct from baryonic matter (ordinary matter such as protons and neutrons), neutrinos and dark energy.

The matter in the universe which can be seen is only 4.9 percent of the total mass of the universe. It is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons bundled up together into atoms. But with gradual time, scientists discovered that almost 26.8 percent of the universe is made of a mysterious, unknown and invisible matter which is known as the dark matter.

Dark energy is the force that is responsible for repelling the gravity and it comprises of 69.3 percent of the total universe. Even though there has been no solid evidence for the presence of dark matter, it has been indicated that there is more in the universe than it meets the eye.

 

PROPERTIES OF DARK MATTER

The dark matter is dark and is not in the form of stars or the planets that we can see. Through observations, it has been found that there is way too little visible matter in the universe. Even though not much is known about the dark matter, it said that the dark matter isn’t the form of dark clouds of the normal matter which is the matter made up of baryon particles. This is said because had it been made of baryon particles, then the scientists would have been able to detect the absorption of radiation that happens in them.

Scientists have also concluded that the dark matter is not an anti-matter as we cannot see the distinctly unique gamma rays produced when the anti-matter get annihilated with the matter. Dark matter is said to have been composed of particles like axions or weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS).

The WIMPS has more than hundred times the mass of a proton but they cannot be detected owing to their weak interactions with the normal matter. Albert Einstein proved the massive objects in the universe distort and bend the light which allows them to be used as lenses. By studying the distortion of light by the clusters of galaxy, astronomers can create a map of dark matter.

 

IN CONCLUSION

Dark matter and dark energy are two unknown quantities whose properties are still unknown. With recent observations, it has been noticed that the dark energy has managed to behave constantly over the history of universe which provides a little insight into the nature of unseen material.

Dark energy tells about the expanding force but dark matter provides an insight into how the group of objects function together. Dark matter can be made of anything ranging from dim objects to strange particles. However, one thing remains the same- scientists don’t know what it is made up of.