Hybridization is the process that involves crossing of two genetically different species for producing an offspring containing different yet preferred set of traits. The main aim of hybridization is creation of genetic variation. Hybrids of plants are created more than animals.
Hybridization helps in developing the natural traits that we want to have in plants. Hybridization is not like the Genetically Modified Organisms since in GMO, the traits which are not natural to the plants are inserted while in hybridization, the natural traits are used.
Plant hybridization is basically used for creating beautiful, new, unique and pretty designs in flowers; better tasting vegetables; and fruits that are healthier and can fight diseases. It can be as difficult as the complicated commercial farming or as easy as the farmer trying to grow purple roses.
WHY IS PLANT HYBRIDIZATION DONE?
Plant hybridization is done for creating an endless variety and types of the new growing plants. Everyone wants to have something new. For example, the farmers want to grow tomatoes that are long-lasting and taste good, to grow beans that are disease resistant and gardeners want to grow flowers that are visually more attractive and serve as the unique selling point of their gardens.
Each parent delivers some of its traits to its offspring. The offspring contains half of the traits of the female and half of the male parent. The final product can be random within the set guidelines. Hybridization makes sure of the traits that we want. Introducing that extra set of traits in the offspring can produce beautiful and desirable results.
Hybridization increases the yield and also helps in eliminating the unwanted qualities from both of the parent species by only keeping the best of both the species. They also result in forming the organism with qualities like stress resistance, disease resistance and all. Hybridization is an expensive process which is costlier than the normal method of reproduction.
Hybridization also prolongs the life of an endangered species. For example, let’s say that you like a variety of green rose owing to its colour but it is rare and cannot be found easily. So, by creating a hybrid of that green rose, you can preserve the colour in another variety and help in saving the desirable traits of the particular species.
Hybridization also leads to evolution of new species. Without hybridization, the natural selection would eliminate all the weaker species and then, no one would be able to find those traits ever again. By creating the hybrid, one saves the good traits and eliminates the unfavourable ones.